Mastic tree (Pistacia lentiscus L.), which is often branched evergreens, grows bushy and shrub form, sometimes each can grow up to 2-3 meters and even it can reach 6 m in height. Basic problem of vegetative propagation method is the shortage of time and insufficient number of breeded trees that can be used as cuttings. Gum resin known as "Schinos" is produced commercially and in large quantities in the Chios island and it has become synonymous with the Chios island. The archaeological studies caried out on the Chios island showed that the chewing gum tree leaf fossils belonging to 6 thousand years ago have been determined. This confirms the origin of the tree the belief that here. Gum resin is used in traditional Greek medicine for the treatment of diseases such as abdominal pain and indigestion since 2.500 year, while the modern scientific research conducted in vivo and in vitro have proved curative effects of gum resin against Helicobacter pylori that cause stomach ulcers. This study will be updated information on cultivation, the chemical content, the ethnobotanical use and biological activities of mastic trees.
Key Words: Anticancer, Gum resin, Gum tree, Pistacia lentiscus L.